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Pioneering High-Quality Urban Mass Transport Systems in Indonesian Cities

August 2, 2021
Before and After Mass Transportation System in Indonesia
Image: © GIZ Indonesia

Visualisation of BRT with segregated lanes in Bandung Raya

The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has submitted its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) and pledged to reduce GHG emissions by 29% below the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario by 2030, and up to 41% with international support. Included within these targeted reductions, the transport sector represents the second largest contributor to the total energy-related emissions in 2020. In order to achieve the transport sector target, the GoI has committed to developing urban mass public transport, which includes bus rapid transport (BRT) infrastructure development and provision of government subsidies for its operation. The NAMA Support Project in Indonesia called SUTRI NAMA and its project component INDOBUS, funded by the Swiss State Secretariat of Economic Affairs (SECO), provides support to local governments in preparing a feasibility studies for Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) development in five pilot cities, namely Bandung, Batam, Pekanbaru, Makassar, and Semarang.

Through a preliminary survey, data collection, and analysis in Makassar and Batam that were concluded in early 2020, the initial findings for BRT development project, including estimation on capital expenditure (CAPEX) and stakeholder analysis for the construction phase, have been identified.

The comprehensive preliminary survey was then followed by a feasibility study in Bandung, Pekanbaru and Semarang, started shortly after to further work out the technical details and costs estimations for BRT development in each city and were concluded in January 2021. Among the key results of the feasibility study are the BRT corridors design and development, service plan, and cost structure, economic benefit and institutional plan.

In the 3rd Steering Committee Meeting on 22 January 2021 in Jakarta, SUTRI NAMA & INDOBUS presented and submitted the results of the feasibility study in Bandung, Pekanbaru, and Semarang to the steering committee that consist of the Ministry of Transportation (MoT), Ministry of National Development Planning (Bappenas), Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Public Works and Housing, Ministry of Agrarian and Spatial Plan, and Ministry of Home Affairs as well as the Swiss State Secretariat of Economic Affairs (SECO). The Steering Committee agreed and approved of the Bandung and Pekanbaru feasibility study results as well as the capital expenditures in Bandung, Semarang, and Pekanbaru and estimated costs for Makassar and Batam. In addition, it was agreed upon that there will be a cooperation agreement in the form of a Memorandum of Understanding with details of the duties and responsibilities as well as the contribution of each party for the development of a BRT system with segregated lane in the pilot cities.

Furthermore, the MoT with the support of SUTRI NAMA & INDOBUS, has submitted the feasibility study of Bandung Raya to Bappenas to access foreign loan set out in the List of Medium-Term Planned External Loans (Blue Book). The World Bank has indicated their commitment to finance the Capital Expense (CAPEX) for the BRT development in Bandung Raya while the Operational Expense (OPEX) will be covered by the local governments. In preparing the operational phase of the BRT in Bandung Raya, Pekanbaru Metropolitan Area and Semarang, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) will be developed and signed by relevant stakeholders in 2021. This stipulated support will be key in the realisation of the project, which is expected to start operation in 2023.

On 2 March 2021, Bandung Raya was the first pilot city to have concluded an MoU, which was signed by the Central and Regional Governments which are the West Java Provincial Government and the governments of five cities and regencies in Bandung Raya or the Bandung Basin Metropolitan Area. The MoU states the mutual commitment, roles and responsibilities of each party in the development of BRT in the Bandung Basin Metropolitan Area, which includes, among others, planning, institutional schemes, development of infrastructure and facilities, financing and operational systems.

Signing of the Memorandum of Understanding in Bandung Raya (Copyright: GIZ Indonesia)

In the other two pilot cities, SUTRI NAMA & INDOBUS has started the feasibility study for BRT development for Batam and Makassar Metropolitan Area in January 2021. Following the local election in Makassar in 2020, SUTRI NAMA & INDOBUS conducted a courtesy meeting with the newly elected Mayor of Makassar, Mr. Mohammad Ramdhan ‘Danny’ Pomanto on 20 May 2021, to discuss GIZ SUTRI NAMA & INDOBUS activities and Makassar city’s transport plans under his administration.

The Mayor of Makassar discussing Makassar city’s transport plans with representatives of GIZ and SECO (Copyright: GIZ Indonesia)

The mayor welcomed the representatives of SUTRI NAMA & INDOBUS and mentioned the extraordinary opportunity brought through the programme’s implementation. According to Danny, as the capital city of the province, Makassar needs to have a public transport in the form of a BRT. “That’s why we did tree planting along the sidewalks, because the use of public transport starts from pedestrians,” he explained. In addition, the SUTRI NAMA & INDOBUS visited the Acting Governor of South Sulawesi, Andi Sudirman Sulaiman. He believes that the programme could support the improvements towards community accessibility in four areas in Makassar Metropolitan Area.

Achmad Zacky Ambadar
Principal Advisor,
Sustainable Urban Transport Programme Indonesia (SUTRI NAMA) and the project component Indonesian Bus Rapid Transit Corridor Development Project (INDOBUS)

*SUTRI NAMA is implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH in cooperation with the Indonesian Ministry of Transportation. The project is funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) of the United Kingdom.

**INDOBUS is implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH in cooperation with the Indonesian Ministry of Transportation. The project is funded by the Swiss State Secretariat of Economic Affairs (SECO).

Indonesia’s transportation-focused NAMA Support Project is supported by the NAMA Facility on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), the Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy and Utilities (KEFM) and the European Union. NAMA Support Projects attempt to overcome the financial and technical barriers faced in developing countries and emerging economies that enable an irreversible transition toward carbon-neutral development pathways.